Hermitage Garden in Moscow
Strictly speaking, the garden of "Hermitage" was not always the way we used to see him. Even it was located elsewhere: in 1830 almost to the end of the XIX century located Bozhedomka he was the first in Moscow pleasure garden with pergolas, flower beds, theater, stage, coffee shops and pavilions.Reached its greatest prosperity in an era when belonged to the famous entrepreneur, former actor of the Maly Theater MV Lentovskogo. Stanislavsky so then recalled the garden of "Hermitage": "There was everything in the garden: boating on the pond and the incredible richness and diversity of water fireworks battle with battleships and sinking them, walking on a tightrope across the pond, water holidays gondolas, illuminated boats, nymphs bathing in a pond, ballet on the beach and in the water.Processions military orchestra, choirs Roma, Russian singers. All Moscow and foreigners coming to her visiting the famous garden. "
However, Lentovsky ruined, and the garden was abandoned, and later was all built up with houses, and nothing is not reminded of the time, when in place of self-flowing lanes housed all this bygone splendor.
And so begins the story of the garden of "Hermitage" in the Coach series, born on the site of a former manor house merchant VIOlontsova. After a few attempts here and theater education garden, undertaken by the Moscow Artistic Circle, merchant MA Lipski, a mechanical engineer KV Moshninov, the whole plot came into the possession of the Moscow merchant I. Shchukin July 16, 1894. This date is celebrated as the birthday of the garden of "Hermitage".
For the year just boring wasteland turned into a blooming garden, flower beds were broken, paths, planted with trees and shrubs, renovated theater building, and June 18, 1895 "Hermitage" was officially opened. Moscow audience showed great interest to it - persistence and enthusiasm caused Shchukin grudging respect even from those who accused him of a lack of subtlety of taste.
In the same year in the "Hermitage" appeared electric lighting, water pipe, friendly pool. A year later, it hosted one of the first Russian cinemagoers.
Onstage "Hermitage" sang Chaliapin, AV Sobinov AV Nezhdanoff SV Rachmaninoff made his debut as a conductor, played Sarah Brenar Mary Ermolova Vera Komissarzhevskaya. In 1898, the theater "Hermitage" opening the Moscow Art Theater, the first performance was "Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich," here was the premiere of Chekhov's plays. In the garden there were Tolstoy, Lenin.
Shchukin constantly undertook the construction of new theatrical platforms in 1909 was built summer "Mirror" theater, he planned opening of a unique winter theater seats 4000, but this plan was destined to take place only in part: box, now called Shchukinskaya scene - everything managed to build. Adverse circumstances generated by the First World War and the revolution led to the ruin of Shchukin.
After the revolution garden was first nationalized and then the period of the NEP transferred to private rent. In the theater the "Hermitage" in 1924, the theater was located MGSPS (Moscow City Council of Trade Unions), then it was renamed Theater of Moscow City Council, was appointed chief director A. Zawadzki. Garden "Hermitage" continued to be a favorite spot of Muscovites. And even global cataclysms could not change that.
During the war, the garden was closed for a brief period - from autumn 1941 to April 1942. In 1943, resumed performances, returned from evacuation actors rehearsed and played in the unheated building, but the "Hermitage" lived.
Summer of 1945, the garden was remodeled in 1948 built a summer concert hall where further acted AI Raikin, were puppet theater, singing KIShulzhenko, LI Ruslanova orchestra played running L. On . Utesova.
In 50-60 years. in the "Hermitage" garden, playing chess, walking, reading, listening to famous artists, watched a movie (in 1953 has been set for the summer cinema screen), during the Festival of Youth and Students in 1957, visited the garden and a half million visitors.Performed here VS Vysotsky, the duo R. Kartcev - Il'chenko, international music and theater groups. In "Mirror" theater was the first game "What? Where? When ".
November 20, 1980 cinema building "Hermitage" was transferred to the theater "Miniatures", under the leadership of Alexander arrived in Moscow Raikina.
In 1991, the theater was opened "New Opera", today, one of three operating theaters at the garden ("Hermitage", "Sphere").
By the 850th anniversary of Moscow transformed garden were restored many historic buildings.
In 2000, the "Hermitage" garden were transferred to two sculptures: busts of Dante Alighieri and Victor Hugo. Dante bust by sculptor Rinaldo Piras, Moscow donated by the Italian government with the participation of the society named Dante Alighieri. Bust of Victor Hugo's work was presented by Laurent Markesta "Hermitage" garden city of Paris. In 2006, the "Hermitage" garden found a large silver heart "Monument Everybody In Love." The monument is a composition of pipe length of 70 meters, which are bent in the shape of heart. Inside the monument are bells that ring from the wind.There giving that love that first kiss under the metal heart, be happy, and their feelings are strong and vibrant life.
In 2004, the garden "Hermitage" otmechal110 anniversary of the foundation.Well here. It is the resting place of Moscow.